Air Pollution is responsible for 5.5 million deaths each year.
The World Health Authority (WHO) has classed diesel exhaust emissions as carcinogenic,
and they are particularly associated with lung cancer.
Particulate matter affects more people than any other air pollutant, it causes damage to the heart and lungs. Ultra-fine particle less than 10 microns are most damaging, they can penetrate deep into the lungs. These ultra-fine particulate are damaging even in low concentrations, the World Health Organisation (WHO)
therefore recommends a concentration limit of 10μg/m3. Particulate exposure is generally greater in rapidly developing cities.
To help control ultra-fine particles, measures by mass (PM) and number (PN) are used.
NOx damages ecosystems though acidification and eutrophication. The most dangerous component of NOx to health is NO2
it can cause inflammation of airways, aggravating respiratory illness and also impair lung function in children.
The World Health Organisation (WHO)
therefore recommends a concentration limit of 40μg/m3.